hannibalmorelikecannibal:

 Raúl Esparza at SDCC 2014 [x]

(via lecterings)

s-c-i-guy:

Watch 80,000 Neurons Fire in the Brain of a Fish

The video above shows 80 percent of the neurons in the brain of a baby zebrafish firing as the animal responds to what it sees. The scientists who made the video say their new technique, called light-sheet imaging, will allow them to study the neural mechanisms of behavior in unprecedented detail.

“There must be fundamental principles about how large populations of neurons represent information and guide behavior,” says neuroscientist Jeremy Freeman of Howard Hughes Medical Institute’s Janelia Farm Research Campus in Ashburn, Virginia. “In this system where we record from the whole brain, we might start to understand what those rules are.”

Trying to figure out how an animal moves and perceives the world around it from the action of a few neurons is like trying to figure out the plot of a movie from the flashing of a dozen random pixels. But that’s analogous to what neuroscientists have been doing for decades: using thin wire electrodes, or grids of them, to pick up signals from (at best) a few hundred neurons out of millions, or even billions.

In a paper in Nature Methods, Freeman and colleagues describe how they used a combination of genetic engineering and optics to capture the activity of about 80,000 neurons in the brains of zebrafish larvae. The scientists used zebrafish genetically engineered to have a chemical indicator in each neuron. In the tenth of a second after a neuron fires, the indicator becomes fluorescent. By swiftly sweeping laser beams through the fish, the scientists make the recently activated neurons glow. Since zebrafish are entirely transparent, the light from each neuron can be captured with an overhead camera.

At the beginning of the movie, the fish is resting and the forebrain region on the far-right is flashing away. That may represent whatever the fish is thinking about when it’s just hanging out.

Scientists then created the illusion that the fish was drifting backwards by sliding bars in front of its eyes. Its intent to swim to catch up was measured with electrodes on its muscles. When the bars start sliding, a few neurons sitting just behind the eyes light up followed by a huge cascade of activity, including massive pulses initiating swimming.

Previous studies by this lab and others have looked at the zebrafish brain in high resolution, but this study marks the first time a complete brain was imaged while the fish was seeing and behaving. Every frame of the movie shows a half-second snapshot of the brain’s activity. The temporal resolution is fast enough to identify which neurons are involved in a given behavior but too slow to count how many times they fire.

The experiment provides a remarkable view of a well-known phenomenon called directional selectivity, present in humans, monkeys, frogs, and fish. For each spatial direction, there are a few neurons tuned to respond to motion in that direction. For example, when an object moves from left to right across the field of vision, a few neurons light up and pass that information to the rest of the brain. This study paints a picture of directional selectivity in the whole zebrafish brain.

The kaleidoscopic colors at the top and bottom of the image show neurons in the optic tectum, which are the first to process signals from the eye. At this stage, all the colors are present. But as directional information moves through the brain, different colors get concentrated in different regions. For example, the purple and green regions in the middle light up when sideways sliding is detected.

A slightly-crooked course can be corrected by leftward or rightward, corresponding to yellow or pink. Indeed, the two sides of the hindbrain, active in initiating swimming, are banded with those colors.

In the forebrain, where fishy versions of thoughts and memories may happen, the meaning of the colors remains a mystery. To help elucidate the role of those neurons, the researchers plan to dynamically modify the fish’s environment in response to its brain activity.

source

(via scinerds)

"The interplay between these new theoretical ideas and new high‐quality observational data has catapulted cosmology from the purely theoretical domain and into the field of rigorous experimental science. This process began at the beginning of the twentieth century, with the work of Albert Einstein."

Free chapter from Cosmology: A Very Short Introduction on the history of cosmology and how it extends from myth to science. This chapter is free until 25 September on Very Short Introductions Online. (via oupacademic)

(via scinerds)

thewintersupersoldier:

puttheskippyonit:

frantzfandom:

every black guy in an action movie written by white guys: now that’s what i’m talking about

*will smith voice* Wooooo!!! HEEEYYYLLL YEAH!!

image

(Source: blacksupervillain, via bootydeficit)

Tags: yupp

applevevo:

listening to a sad song that has a nice beat

image

(via tyleroakley)

Tags: life

scienceyoucanlove:

Great news! ReWalk, a motorised exoskeleton suit that helps people who are paralysed from the waist down to stand up and walk again, has been approved for personal use: http://bit.ly/1qddmGu
source 

scienceyoucanlove:

Great news! ReWalk, a motorised exoskeleton suit that helps people who are paralysed from the waist down to stand up and walk again, has been approved for personal use: http://bit.ly/1qddmGu

source 

tastefullyoffensive:

I see what you did there. [x]

tastefullyoffensive:

I see what you did there. [x]

Tags: haha

rfmmsd:

Artist & Illustrator:

Dani Soon

"Lotus and Frogs"

Digital Painting

2014

http://www.soonillustration.com/

(Source: facebook.com)

jtotheizzoe:

pbsdigitalstudios:

This week It’s Okay to be Smart and BrainCraft have teamed up to teach us about our brains!

Watch “Why Your Brain Is In Your Head” on Joe’s channel here: http://youtu.be/qdNE4WygyAk

Watch “This Is How Your Brain Grows” on Vanessa’s channel here: http://youtu.be/aucscX191vQ

Check out this week’s It’s Okay To Be Smart!!!

I teamed up with the awesome neuroscience channel BrainCraft this week to bring you two awesome brain stories!! And while you’re at it, enjoy these GIF(t)s!

captainmaund:

fandom-for-fun:

rel4d2:

the-mispookyvous-loki:

gingeronastick:

ganderbulbs:

bouderie:

nintendonut1:

breathingocean:

image

reblog because wow what a great quality audio file this is

wow this file really is high quality

im kind of shocked 

i thought the comments were being sarcastic im not sure if im disappointed or not

dude holy shit you’re right.

IT’S SO CRISP MY MOUTH DROPPED OPEN

God this is so catchy

THIS IS BETTER SOUNDING THAN I HEARD IT ON MY TV 2 DAYS AGO. WTF IS THIS

my favorite song on the planet

(Source: 123029393, via the-art-student-in-221c)

medicalschool:

Woman declared ‘dead’ awakens just before doctors harvest her organs
Imagine waking up to see operating room lights and doctors standing over you, armed with scalpels and other operating tools. That’s exactly what happened to 41-year-old Colleen Burns, who had arrived at the emergency room at St. Joseph’s Hospital Health Center in Syracuse, N.Y., over a week earlier suffering from a drug overdose, Counsel and Heal reported.  Mistakenly believing Burns to be dead, doctors at the center were about to harvest the woman’s organs for transplant, before she opened her eyes.
The 2009 incident is detailed in a recently revealed report from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), which also lists the series of mistakes by doctors that led to the terrible event. Burns had been found unresponsive, likely due to an overdose of Xanax and Benadryl.  According to the report, hospital specialists recommended treating her with activated charcoals in order to stop the drugs from being absorbed into her stomach and intestines – but the staff failed to follow through with this recommendation. Burns eventually spent over a week at the hospital, with nothing being done to stop the drugs from being absorbed into her system.  She started to suffer from seizures, though CT scans revealed her brain was normal.  
Allegedly, nurses had also indicated improvement in Burns’ condition, noting that she was capable of curling her toes when touched.  She could also move her mouth and tongue, as well as flare her nose, according to Counsel and Heal.  And despite being on a respirator, Burns was starting to breathe on her own, the report said. However, doctors still misdiagnosed Burns with irreversible brain damage. Believing her to be beyond help, Burns’ family decided to take her off life support and donate her organs to patients in need.
The report maintained that not enough tests and brain scans were performed before the diagnosis. “The patient did not suffer a cardiopulmonary arrest [as documented] and did not have irreversible brain damage,” the report revealed. “The patient did not meet criteria for withdrawal of care.” Just before doctors were about to cut into her, Burns awoke, saving her own life.
However, Burns went on to commit suicide in 2011, and no one has ever filed charges against the hospital for the critical mistakes the doctors made. After a review of the incident, the hospital was fined $6,000.
[Read more of this FOX News article here]

medicalschool:

Woman declared ‘dead’ awakens just before doctors harvest her organs

Imagine waking up to see operating room lights and doctors standing over you, armed with scalpels and other operating tools. That’s exactly what happened to 41-year-old Colleen Burns, who had arrived at the emergency room at St. Joseph’s Hospital Health Center in Syracuse, N.Y., over a week earlier suffering from a drug overdose, Counsel and Heal reported.  Mistakenly believing Burns to be dead, doctors at the center were about to harvest the woman’s organs for transplant, before she opened her eyes.

The 2009 incident is detailed in a recently revealed report from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), which also lists the series of mistakes by doctors that led to the terrible event. Burns had been found unresponsive, likely due to an overdose of Xanax and Benadryl.  According to the report, hospital specialists recommended treating her with activated charcoals in order to stop the drugs from being absorbed into her stomach and intestines – but the staff failed to follow through with this recommendation. Burns eventually spent over a week at the hospital, with nothing being done to stop the drugs from being absorbed into her system.  She started to suffer from seizures, though CT scans revealed her brain was normal.  

Allegedly, nurses had also indicated improvement in Burns’ condition, noting that she was capable of curling her toes when touched.  She could also move her mouth and tongue, as well as flare her nose, according to Counsel and Heal.  And despite being on a respirator, Burns was starting to breathe on her own, the report said. However, doctors still misdiagnosed Burns with irreversible brain damage. Believing her to be beyond help, Burns’ family decided to take her off life support and donate her organs to patients in need.

The report maintained that not enough tests and brain scans were performed before the diagnosis. “The patient did not suffer a cardiopulmonary arrest [as documented] and did not have irreversible brain damage,” the report revealed. “The patient did not meet criteria for withdrawal of care.” Just before doctors were about to cut into her, Burns awoke, saving her own life.

However, Burns went on to commit suicide in 2011, and no one has ever filed charges against the hospital for the critical mistakes the doctors made. After a review of the incident, the hospital was fined $6,000.

well-it-beats-me:

Of Monsters & Men vs. Imagine Dragons  - Time for Our Little Talks

(via asentenceadayandneveragain)

bpod-mrc:

06 July 2014
Back to Black
The Black Death was certainly a colourful killer. Ravaging Europe in the 14th century, the bubonic plague wiped out between a third and a half of the continent’s population. Carried in the gut of fleas (in purple), the bacteria (shown in yellow) wreaked such wholesale chaos that it changed the very fabric of European culture. Modern antibiotics have mostly consigned the plague to the history books, but 3000 cases are still reported annually. It’s important therefore to understand how the disease strikes with such rapidity that, as a Middle Ages witness noted that victims often “ate lunch with their friends and dinner with their ancestors in paradise”. In fact, it appears that bubonic plague shares genes with several other pathogens that may underlie a common attack mechanism. Unlocking how these genes cause infection could help fight numerous diseases that continue to leave a black mark on our societies.
Written by Jan Piotrowski
—
Image by Bernard Joseph Hinnebusch, Elizabeth Fischer and Austin AthmanNational Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of HealthOriginally published under a Creative Commons Licence (BY 4.0)Research published in PLOS Pathogens, March 2014
—
You can also follow BPoD on Twitter and Facebook

bpod-mrc:

06 July 2014

Back to Black

The Black Death was certainly a colourful killer. Ravaging Europe in the 14th century, the bubonic plague wiped out between a third and a half of the continent’s population. Carried in the gut of fleas (in purple), the bacteria (shown in yellow) wreaked such wholesale chaos that it changed the very fabric of European culture. Modern antibiotics have mostly consigned the plague to the history books, but 3000 cases are still reported annually. It’s important therefore to understand how the disease strikes with such rapidity that, as a Middle Ages witness noted that victims often “ate lunch with their friends and dinner with their ancestors in paradise”. In fact, it appears that bubonic plague shares genes with several other pathogens that may underlie a common attack mechanism. Unlocking how these genes cause infection could help fight numerous diseases that continue to leave a black mark on our societies.

Written by Jan Piotrowski

Image by Bernard Joseph Hinnebusch, Elizabeth Fischer and Austin Athman
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health
Originally published under a Creative Commons Licence (BY 4.0)
Research published in PLOS Pathogens, March 2014

You can also follow BPoD on Twitter and Facebook

Tags: genetics

epicukulelesolo:

This is literally the stupidest comic I have ever made and I’m not even sorry

epicukulelesolo:

This is literally the stupidest comic I have ever made and I’m not even sorry

(via theturnofgods)

(Source: jimmyfallongifs, via shiyunkan)

Tags: haha